Set out plants in a well-drained, acid, highly organic soil that is cool and retains abundant moisture, spacing to allow for ultimate growth. Kalmia flowers best in light shade to full sun (so long as ample moisture is available), but is essentially a woodland plant requiring shade in the southern portion of its range.
Kalmia are surface-rooting, so do not allow them to dry out, especially when newly planted. Water during dry periods, and apply a mulch to conserve moisture. Should the leaves become yellow or spotted with yellow, kalmia is likely suffering from chlorosis, a common condition where the soil is lacking in soluble iron.
Addition of sulphur or aluminum sulfate will reduce the soil pH, and free additional iron to become available to the plant. Prune after flowering as necessary to shape.